Triangulation design validating quantitative data model

Simultaneous sequencing is postulated to be simultaneous use of qualitative and quantitative methods, where there is limited interaction between the two sources of data during data collection, but the data obtained is used in the data interpretation stage to support each method's findings and to reach a final understanding.Sequential sequencing is postulated to be the use of one method before the other, as when the results of one method are necessary for planning the next method.Approximately 100 million adults in the United States are affected by chronic pain, with treatment costs and losses in productivity totaling 5 billion annually (Institute of Medicine, 2011).Symptoms of pain are the leading reason patients visit health care providers (Hing, Cherry, & Woodwell, 2006).

At level 3, qualitative research through focus groups and key informant interviews will provide even more refined information about perceptions of recommended and received care.Mixed methods research methodologies are increasingly applied in nursing research to strengthen the depth and breadth of understanding of nursing phenomena.This article describes the background and benefits of using mixed methods research methodologies, and provides two examples of nursing research that used mixed methods. The examples provided demonstrate specific benefits in the creation of a culturally congruent picture of chronic pain management for American Indians, and the determination of a way to assess cost for providing chronic pain care.A mixed methods research approach is needed to understand the complex experience, epidemiology, and management of chronic pain among American Indians and to address the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative methodologies (large sample size, trends, generalizable) with those of qualitative methodologies (small sample size, details, in-depth).This first example is from an ongoing study that uses triangulation design to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of chronic pain management among American Indians.

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